star wars panel art

If you’re after the selection of Star Wars after its first part, then perhaps you’re an enthusiastic fan of a few figures in the story. Have you thought to then use a canvas paintings that has your stars hence you’d always have their unique inspirations to locate to? This kind of style is exclusively created for you! It could set up a different kind of feeling in the space considering that it lures the viewer’s curiosity. You can even have it associated by different ornaments using the same format. It’s quite simple to set up. The fee is reasonable. Nevertheless it includes an incredible value to your office or house.

The star war selection is probably the leading films on this whole world; it collected numerous hearts throughout the world. The combating spaceships, inter-family feuds, sci-fi explosions, and quirky alien heroes; there’s so many wonderful things to learn about the star war collection. Most likely, the awesomeness of this idea can not be conveyed in words and phrases; this is why we design hand-painted star wars canvas art pieces for followers.

The Star Wars picture of your decision is surrounded in a strong frame as well as other supplies employed for the entire product have high-quality. It includes a defensive layer against sun or damage from water. Moreover, you really don’t need much more effort to help keep it in shape. The merchandise is shown to go on for a longer time of time below normal conditions. You can buy many different Star Wars photos all of which are exhibited in this website with certain explanations. You could search each and every group to seek other things that can likely fit your pursuits.

The web shops nowadays contain an array of multiple piece paintings, yet nothing compares to the attractive appeal of star wars canvas art work in the eyes of Star wars followers. Really, it’s a must-have décor product for enthusiasts. They aren’t restricted to a couple of types; you will find lot many, each one of these produces a fantastic impact in the fans’ eyes.

Star Wars is known as a cultural phenomenon that has spanned generations and also has a lot of lovers around the globe. The epic stories and roles are part of a sci-fi mythos that has obtained impressive status. Assuming you have been a fan, or perhaps you are looking for a present for someone particular, then is the perfect place to shop. Their collecting canvas paintings features everybody’s superheroes, vessels, and many more, if you are looking for Darth Vader hanging on your own living room area wall, or you would like to put Yoda for the workplace, you will discover everything that you would like. stands out as the ideal website to shop for star wars art pieces. Our star wars work also come in multiple size ranges, colour combinations, and designs. Consumers can quite simply decide on the a lot of well-designed design for their master bedroom, lounge room, dining area, kitchen area, restroom, inn, and business office too. You may hang these star wars paintings on your wall behind the bed or behind the bedroom inside your bedroom. You with thankful to find out that these star war canvas series are surprisingly easy to hang with their modern style finish.

stars wars 5

How toPaint a Beautiful Design on a Black Canvas Baggage

If you’d prefer to travel much like Me, you are aware how big of a headache it usually is to search for your travel suitcase in baggage claim. Black canvas suitcases often make up in excess of 80 percent of the suitcases which come off an airplane in airports everywhere. Personally I have tried coloured bag tags, silicone bands around the handle and also decorated straps to hold my personal black tote closed. Our very last flying experience I made the choice to paint a decorative design on the back and front of our suitcases so we can

conveniently spot them while they came off the plane. Adhere to all these uncomplicated advice to paint your own personal tailored design on your black canvas baggage.

The step one during this process would be to choose your design. Choose design that has a decent outside line like a comic character or just a list of letters. My very own design was a list of three cats and kittens somewhere having a mouse on the back. Once you’ve got concluded your design, draw or locate the outside lines of the design upon the black colored canvas with a graphite or disappearing yellow/white sewing pencil.

Paint into the lines with gesso or possibly a white fabric base paint. Let this layer of paint to dry completely before carrying on. Both gesso and fabric base paint take more time to dry than acrylic paint because of their thickness. The gesso or fabric base paint stiffens and produces a surface area that could accept a layer of shaded paint by utilizing just one single layer. You’ll need to paint roughly 10 layers of light colored paint on black colored canvas to have the lightness of the paint to be noticed.

As soon as the gesso or white fabric base paint is dry, make the inner lines of your design. Coloring every single area together with the suitable coloured acrylic or perhaps fabric paint. Allow the paint to dry fully before carrying on.

Include any sort of fine detail you wish at this point including shading, smaller patterns like dots, circles, roses etc .. Shake glitter covering the wet paint to supply a further dimension in case you need. In the end minor designs as well as glitter are used, outline each area using black paint. Utilize a liner brush to do the detailing. A liner brush supports the paint for a longer time and creates a extended line of paint than the smaller round brush.

Heat set the layout after the last drying. Put a brown piece of packing paper covering the design area. Fire up your iron as well as heat on the cotton setting. Place the hot iron in the upper left hand corner of the wrapping paper and carry in position for 15 seconds. Move the iron to the right one iron’s size and repeat. Persist moving the iron and heating the painting until the whole area has actually been heat set. Remove brown packaging paper and you will be ready.

On this website you can easily find more information –

Make Francoise Nielly Encouraged Face

Its abstract with funky colours. That’s my first impressions on this piece of work. It reveals dark areas exactly where dark-colored hues are, and lightweight where by less heavy hues are. In my opinion its too colorful, however. I prefer just a few colours. Alternatively, just dark colours.

Francoise Nielly day-to-day lives within a realm of photos.

Because you can see the brush strokes, and the rough colour blocks, the piece of work looks rough textured. Its diverse to numerous performers who easy out their clean cerebral vascular accidents, and who mix their colors. I love the abstract outcome it provides.

She becomes her feeling of construction and space from her dad, who had been an designer. Being raised from the Southern of France where by she resided involving Saint and Cannes-Tropez, is rarely far away from the sunshine, colour perception along with the environment that permeates the To the south of France. This really is in conjunction with her reports together with her reports with the Beaux artistry and Ornamental Artistry, and her spontaneity as well as festivity.

Francoise Nielly’s piece of art is expressive, demonstrating a brute pressure, an amazing important vitality. knife and Oil merge develop her photos from the substance which is , as well, biting and carnal, incisive and sensual. Whether or not she paints our body or portraits, the musician has a threat : her piece of art is erotic, her shades free of charge,surprising and exuberant, even intense, the lower of her blade incisive, her colour pallet stunning.

She has looked into the numerous elements of “appearance” all her existence, by way of artwork, virtual, illustrations, photography and roughs, pc made computer animated visuals. It is actually crystal clear given that artwork is her course and her interest.

In the individual way, Francoise Nielly paints a persons experience in all of his artwork. And she paints it over and over yet again, with slashes of painting all over their deal with. Instances of existence that develop from her artwork are delivered coming from a clinch using the material. Shade is unveiled similar to a projectile.

Awesome Art of Francoise Nielly

Palette Knife artwork Lesson

Pigment is the real substance used to colour the paint or dye. Extremely finely ground down particles make up the paint medium. Many are produced synthetically. Years ago they arrived from vegetation, animals and minerals.

Small palette knife art. This my primary software as it is the factor I reach for the most and use for every solitary cake I make. It is nice for lifting rolled sugarpaste and flowerpaste, made up decorations, flowers, and all types of other stuff. It is usually fantastic for putting objects onto a cake surface area. Ought to you go for a nice knife it ought to slide quickly and simply beneath sugarpaste or flowerpaste without distorting the shape. I would advocate buying definitely one of these from an art offer store as these appear to be a lot finer than cake adorning types.

Canvas is a painting surface that can live for a hundred year consequently buying hand-painted leonid afremov for your wall decoration, you can be certain that you are getting wall decor that will be along with your family members for a hundred year to come.

Make particular to consist of all of the colours you think you will require to total that session of painting as well. Again, this will make you more effective.

Your should to start out with only two-three paint colours in your pallette. Usually, there may be cadmium crimson, cadmium yellow and ultramarine blue to start with.

If for instance you wish to use flowers as component of the ornament, then you must first determine whether or not you require to use the substitute ones or the live and edible types. Ought to you settle for the bogus types, then there are just a couple of resources that you will require to be able to glaze them to attain a great impact. If you want to frost it, then you will have a syringe-like gadget that will allow you squeeze out the icing as you make the design that you just want. The scale will depend on the thickness of the paste of the icing.

Prepare the 4 surfaces with a frivolously textured coating of gesso and allow it to dry. You can use it with a big paintbrush or a palette knife paintings, but be sure to start with a white surface area.

Make particular to include all of the colors you think you will require to complete that session of portray as nicely. Again, this will make you more effective.

arts reproductions, paint rag

Related article on Francoise Nielly Portraits

Interactivity and real time-envy

Jim Drobnick: What aspects of technology utilized in your work do you intend to be “transparent” and what aspects are made visible?

Elizabeth Diller and Ricardo Scofidio: Because we want our work to be understood within a broad definition of technology, we tend to downplay hardware in favour of more elusive forms of cultural apparatus. The Slow House (1991), for example, probes the notion of “view.” The house sits on an oceanfront site facing the horizon. It takes the from of a distorted cone of vision: a narrow entry door at one end leads to an expansive picture window to the ocean view at the other. Partially interrupting this view is a video monitor that receives a similar image of the ocean from a live camera at a higher elevation. This video view can be panned and zoomed by remote control. It can also be recorded and deferred – day played back at night, fair weather in foul…. The image in the monitor and the one through the picture window are grafted into a composite view with the two horizons permanently out of alignment. For the resident sitting deep in the recliner with a margarita in hand watching the sun set over the horizon, mediated vision is offered as an object of contemplation.

With the domestic application of long span glass in the 1950s, the view became an object of desire, a possessable artifact, a trophy for the living room. The picture window domesticates nature. It assigns value to whatever it frames. It produces the view. Can the view in the picture window be considered any less “technologized” than the one in the video screen? In fact, as advanced technology strives to de-materialize its hardware, to become solely effects, perhaps the picture window can be considered a “high” technology because its cultural mechanisms are immaterial, unlike the bulky video system.

How does your work resist or alter the instrumental, commercial or positivistic attitudes built into technology?

While our work utilizes new technologies, it targets the reductive discourses surrounding them: the technophilic narratives of progress and technophobic narratives of decline and control. This dualistic mine field has pushed us to become techno-centrists. The technologies themselves are far less insidious…. We are always circumventing industrially and commercially determined applications of the technologies we use.

What is the role of interactivity in your work? Why have you chosen to work in this format?

Outpost Art Artscenecal

As our work stems from architecture, it always anticipates a thinking and performing subject. With new media, we’ve simply added more explicit forms of interactivity, thus more conscious links to the subtext of the work… which somehow always returns to subjectivity itself.

How have you negotiated the contradictory issues of freedom and empowerment, and their inverse, control and design, present in interactive work?

The contradictions of interactivity are part of its attraction. For example, the claim that the conventions of authorship will be overturned by converting the passive viewer into an (inter) active co-producer. This passive/active dualism perpetuated by new media assumes that subjects are “passive” if they are not pushing a mouse and “active” even if they are playing out prescribed scripts. Interactive art is a kind of predetermined indeterminacy, conceived by artists in the guise of control surrendered. This deception is an important structural component of interactive work.

In Indigestion (1995), we used the empowerment of “choice” to lure viewers into a closer inspection of character construction. Two figures of undesignated relation across a dinner table are projected onto a horizontal screen that corresponds precisely in size, shape and height to an actual table. The dialogue, written by Douglas Cooper, involves an archetypal blackmail scenario camouflaged in a repartee about food. Along the progress of the narrative, a nearby touch screen offers viewers a menu of replaceable characters, each a sexual and/or class stereotype. The piece is conceived for continuity in any branching pathway though the event is thoroughly nuanced according to the chosen stereotype.

The pretext of “freedom” is interactivity’s strongest instrument of control. Freedom has been a persistent theme of twentieth century technology, so the instrumental use of freedom is a logical postmodern extension. Lately, we’ve been studying how closely the rhetoric of “freedom” surrounding emerging technologies parallels the rhetoric which accompanied the introduction of a visionary new technology in the early twentieth century: glass. Curtain wall construction would liberate vision from the disciplinary enclosure of masonry. Glass was considered a material of truth, an instrument of disclosure. Glass promised, as do information technologies, to democratize information. Both have guaranteed a boundless, transparent world, unimpeded by conventional spatial limitations. Also, both eventually discovered their dystopian flip side. When the gaze came to be understood as a two-way system, glass suddenly became a paranoid material, raising the question: Whose freedom and on which side of the glass? Likewise, interactive and information technologies have raised the question: Whose freedom and on which side of the interface?

We’ve been trying to rethink glass after modernism – trying out strategies of display and spectatorship – beyond positive and negative associations. In Jump Cuts (1996) we added a liquid crystal skin across the glass facade of a Cineplex theater. Following Asimov’s prophetic idea of “opacifying glass,” the facade phases between transparent and translucent modes with the application of an electrical current. While translucent, the liquid crystal interrupts the view into the theater lobby with video imagery that ranges from surveillance views of the scene blocked from direct view, to movie trailers. Glass here has a flexible ideology.

How does your use of technology address the body? Is it a form of disembodiment or re-embodiment?

Your question reflects another dualism propagated by new media. We distance ourselves both from the ecstasy of “disembodiment” and the nostalgia of “re-embodiment,” assuming that the body was ever actually lost.

What manner of subjectivity, character, or behavior do you wish to invoke?

We’re interested in producing a reversible subjectivity that can negotiate aggregate modes of real/fictive space. This requires a subject that does not surrender their identity. Typically, a new media tends to neutralize its subject. It prefers a disembodied, un-situated subject that can easily be re-situated and assume any identity. In virtual technologies the term “entering” a sensory-immersive environment presupposes exiting the environment in which it sets. This arrival/departure metaphor insures a distinction between the fictional “inside” and the actual “outside,” safeguarding the distance between author and subject – the very distance this technology was originally meant to bridge. The hard work ahead for interactive art may well be the interrogation of this forced distance. Can individual subjectivity actually be left behind? We believe that it is only because cultural codes are unavoidably brought into fictive space by the geographically and culturally situated subject that willful choices could be made and any threat to the conventions of subjectivity could be tested.

Are there any new technologies you would like to work with, or not, and why?

At the moment, we’re working on some new themes within existing technologies. We’re obsessed with two contemporary temporal notions: “live” (as in broadcast transmission) and “real time” (as in interactive media). While recorded and lag time are thought to divorce spectator from event, action from reaction, the temporal immediacy of live/real time produces experiences at the precise moment of their occurrence, despite spatial discontinuity. This emphasis on immediacy seems to express a desire to recuperate auratic experience lost in postmodern culture. It oddly favours unmediated time over unmediated space. We’re currently working on the condition of real time-envy in a project for the Web and the assumption of live performance for a theater work on the traditional stage.

How do you hope that your work, as well as other artists’ productions changes an audience’s relationship to technology?

Hopefully, when the novelty subsides, content-driven work will challenge the acritical embrace (or acritical rejection) of everything new and allow its audience to appreciate interactive art within a genealogy of media and with an understanding of the political and economic conditions out of which it is produced.

Outpost Art events

What ramifications do interactive works have for rethinking social structures?

It’s hard to generalize. However, in our production, interactivity is an ideal instrument for the interrogation of social structures. It can challenge participants with problems of “propriety” and allow them to test social limits without liability for their transgressions. The nature of the issues we want to bring out, however, requires the invention of new interfaces which complicate the formerly exclusive domains of the “real” and the “fictive.” For that reason our aim is to weave together fictive and actual sites/situations in which participants can engage cultural codes from a critical semi-fictive stance.

Jim Drobnick is a writer living in Montreal.

Les architectes new-yorkais Diller + Scofidio experimentent avec plusieurs pratiques et medias. Leur travail interroge les discours culturels sur le regard, l’architecture et la representation. Ils abordent ici certaines de leurs oeuvres recentes ou il est question de l’aspect illusoire de l’interactivite, de la notion de transparence en architecture moderne et de la place du sujet a l’ere des nouvelles technologies.

Chris Hables Gray, ed., The Cyborg Handbook

New York and London: Routledge, 1995; 546 pp., ill. b. & w.


This guide brings together critical essays on the genealogy, science and imagination of cyborgs in ways that are relevant and culturally specific. The term “cyborg,” imputable to Manfred Clynes, by now attaches to wherever a “human-machine living system” (p. 5) is imagined, invented or produced. Hence this text probes the problematic discontinuity between humans and machines. The Cyborg Handbook is to be experienced as a chart around and across suspicion and fascination.

The audience completely filled Outpost’s modestly sized space

Cyborgism, the ideology, and cyborgology, the attitude and the praxis, admit the transmutation of the body and its intelligences along with the crosscutting of recombinant machineries. Their combined effect, Donna Haraway theorizes, results in “situated knowledges.” Enter the cyborg. Cyborg culture locates an intimate conjoining of what is built, imagined and commodified. Not just the economic, semiotic, technological and mythical, but also the specific and the universal exist within its order. Such that, in its explication, these essays do not simply fuse aspects of its biological, theoretical, philosophical and communicative components along with its terms, but also try to bring to issue the implications and consequences of cyborg technology for our present and future lives. The sheer size of this volume prevents more elaborate discussion here. But, from the standpoint of cultural studies, medicine, philosophy, anthropology and visio-virtual practice, among others, what this collection begins to formulate is the description of a fascinating and comprehensive encounter. S. D.

Perspective 96

Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, November 13 – February 9

“Perspective 96” is the last instalment of George Gilmour’s annual endowment to showcase young artists. For the exhibition, curator Jessica Bradley chose four painters: Cora Cluett, Eric Glavin, Angela Leach and Steven Shearer. Barring only Cluett, whose work is the most painterly, the remaining three are producing hard-edge. In her catalogue, Bradley makes connections to their work and the entrenched lexicon surrounding the genre: Minimalism, Pop, Op, Neo-Geo, and the thoroughly trampled simulation theories of Jean Baudrillard.

The potential dilemma of wholesale paintings in this style is carrying the overwrought baggage of ensconced history. Bradley is right, you cannot disassociate their work from what preempts it — nor are these artists necessarily trying to. But there are differences between then and now. That all the artists’ works make reference to mechanicalism and digitalization suggests a perpetual motion of the genre which has proven to be particularly adept at continual mutation. In fact, in Toronto anyway, there seems a tangible resurgence of younger artists talking about the theoretical concerns of modernism over post-modernism. “Perspective 96” taps at this generational revisionism as though a kind of paradigm shift mixing in with a frantic end-of-millenia trajectory that keeps coming back to the vapidness and infinitism of technology.

The inclusion of Cluett’s tactile work, which seems oddly and probably intentionally out of place, is her theoretic base: the insulating sociological aspects of computers, particularly with the Internet. The repeated symbols she uses in her paintings spell out, in computer dingbats, kiss (: = *), and are stamped in grid repetition. Her colours are saturated opalescent reds, auburns and aged-whites applied like stucco, rich and tactile, and inches thick. Cluett suggests a polemic between medium and meaning, the human-like warmth of the work butting up against current social insulation and detachment through digitalization. But the result is a bizarre stalemate of either being too obvious or not convincing enough. Obvious in the sense that her references to technology don’t lead anywhere, or appear forced within the overriding context of this exhibition. Unconvincing in the sense that her tactile impressions far outweigh any conceived notion on digitarianism.

But Cluett’s works do have a link, if only in a loose way, to the remaining artists’ works which are also defined by the presence of techno-vapidness, though ultimately they are working at defying it. In fact, to see Eric Glavin’s graphic, linear and cow painting in reproduction is simply ineffectual, even though it is mass reproduction to which his work refers.

Hard-edged paintings like cow paintings are intentionally blemished — a slight variation within flat layers of colour, for instance — that are all important flaws defining his paintings as paintings; elements that scanners cannot pick up. Glavin’s subject matter, or lack thereof, is latent and so far removed from any origin that there is only an imprint of an undetermined memory. His choices of jarring, almost sick, colour combinations and heavily stylized forms hark back to indecipherable made-in-America fashion periods somewhere within the late 1950s right up to the 1990s obsession for retro. In a video shown during the exhibition, Glavin is talking in his studio and tacked to the distant wall is a Snickers wrapper. Oddly, that wrapper — which doesn’t appear to have succumb to any restylized up-dates — embodies the hyper-stylization found in his paintings. His kind of sophisticated populism goes beyond anything immediately retrievable, which is why the Snickers’ graphic seems so loaded as a tempting starting- or end-point.

A similar pseudo-retro sensibility is found in Angela Leach’s work. Her paintings are small and long, like swaths of fabric. Six stripes of colour, repeated in some manner in all of peacock paintings on canvas, meander in patterns like Op Art interpreted through suburban basement decor and, somewhere in there, Jean Miro and his biomorphisms produced under the influence of self-induced starvation and sleep deprivation. (Those are my references, though Leach’s own mentioned sources are just as permeable and arbitrary: an African mask from her parent’s home, her collection of jazz albums from the seventies, a stackable set of stools she uses in her studio, and her adjunct profession as a weaver.) The paintings are beautiful, riveting things, and the six-coloured bands are pure psychedelia. But ultimately, her work is about the tedium of her stencilling and filling-in process that, like Glavin’s slight imperfections, cannot be created by any other means other than by hand.

I would put Steven Shearer and Leach’s work together as the strongest match, in part because their processes to some degree define their work, though Shearer’s Untitled grid paintings that line up along the wall and have the look and feel of kitchen tiles, are completely produced outside of handcrafted production. He uses mathematical equations for signage machines to “paint” the work. Why Leach and Shearer connect is not in their methods — each being the extreme of the other — but the end product. Both are visually similar and equally rich, particularly with Shearer’s intricate grid works. In another stylized series, Shearer turned the bar code into a graphic pattern reproduced in duplicate and in insipid autochromes — one brown, the other orange. To give his colour range more description would suggest something “tasteful.” Shearer’s colours are intentionally anti-tasteful, like a 1970s rayon leisure suit in Miami. These works, and in particular TGIF, which feels completely familiar in its connection to optical graphics of 1950s and 60s, that a distinction from the previous era is hardly perceptible.

The “Perspective 96” painters are serendipitous grazers; lifting, pilfering, appropriating from everywhere but without actually making a direct reference to origins — which is not too far from what the Internet does and is doing; of warping concepts of time and place within chronology, as well as dismantling any sense of property, ownership or originality. Which is different from the kind of appropriation used in the 1980s, with artists like David Salle or David Diao, who grafted from mass media iconography to skew the notion of high and low brow. None of the “Perspective 96” artists refer back to an identifiable icon and any nameable reference point is seamlessly omitted.

Kim Adams exhibition

Gathered in the exhibition space as in a great carnival or flea market, vehicles, models of vehicles, dwellings and model dwellings compete for epistemic authority. The gallery is filled, detail upon detail, in a satirical exploration of a culture’s excessive production. Most of the works in this show are comprised of the kind of equipment used to keep in abeyance our fear of emptiness, either in terms of space or time: the tools and materials of recreational pursuits like gardening, renovating or camping.

Curator Sandra Grant Marchand has organized a glimpse of Toronto artist Kim Adams’ prodigious output in his first large-scale exhibition in Montreal. Adams resists transforming the gallery into a sculptural place of formal perceptual tension, but relies instead on space socially ordered by the ambiguous status of objects and activities relative to their designation as art. The exhibition space becomes a container “stocked” with sculptures and models. This aspect of the exhibition is consistent with Adams’ assemblage work in general: sculpture from components already assembly oriented like sports equipment, vehicles, toy model kits and household gadgets.

The kit is one of the basic modes of postmodern fabrication and this is one of the organizing themes of Adams’ work. Our urban environment, like the kit, is assembled by a series of components that, in themselves, compose a loose network that can be modified according to the will of planners. This environment provides many of Adams’ materials.

The wheel is everywhere is this exhibition. So are ersatz homes, assembly line housing, especially of the mobile variety. Also, non-mobile implements have sometimes been given mobility through the addition of wheels. In Model: Decoy Homes (1987), for example, a standard metal ironing board has become an oversize skateboard with the addition of four wheels, one at each corner. This work is either a sculpture with no base or a sculpture comprised only of bases standing one on another. The extended legs of the ironing board serve as a base as does the board itself for other elements stacked above in tiers. First, three kitchen garbage cans are housed in a construction which functions to support a second tier. Two hardware cabinets balance on this upper level and they too have wheels which rest on tracks allowing the cabinets to shuttle back and forth, but only a short distance. Both cabinets have chimneys composed of actual ducting and one has a standard galvanized metal outdoor garbage can stuck on its roof. The ensemble is precarious, and it is this aspect combined with the futility of wheels spinning in space, of vehicle/homes which track back and forth a few useless inches, that reveals a sense of ambiguous humour, bleak but compassionate for the unavoidable frailty of the “constructions” with which we comfort ourselves.

Organized along the lines of the figurative structure of linguistic operations, Adams’ works reflect on the rhetorical relations pertaining within language. For example, in He/He (1990) two tricycles are siamesed, sharing a common rear axle and driving away from each other. This vehicle is coming when it is going and vice versa, or transposed into the form of language it is an unsaying in the act of saying. He also draws humourously strained analogies: abstract themes such as the circularity of language as model/model as language manifested concretely in works featuring uselessly spinning wheels. Duchamp’s Bicycle Wheel (1913) substituted contemplation for action, for history, and this suspension of the wheel’s function and the foregrounding of the sculptural base is clearly a motif for many of Adams’ works.

Earth Wagons (1989-91) is comprised of a miniature mountain resting on an assembly of a child’s wagon and two utility trailers such as are pulled behind the family car for work on the house or garden. The two trailers are supported, wheels off the ground, by jack stands which ambiguously mediate or “stand between” the institution and the art. Vehicles ride piggyback on other vehicles, a model train pulls a chain of flatcars conveying recreational vehicles, while the entire ensemble itself rests on “actual” trailers. This piece grafts the miniature onto the life-size, shifting our point of view from microcosm to macrocosm. Alternations of size and scale, from actual-size to gigantic and/or miniaturized models, these models (and all the works become models in some sense) explore mimesis: if the model is composed of items which function simultaneously to indicate a literal concrete reality and to “model” or to “look like something else,” then an absolute relativism results, creating an environment which moves ever nearer to the closure of an endless mirroring. The preponderance of quantity is itself a quality, a way of being that loses all measure. The implication for art is that the work of art may be constructed whenever and however: as in an infinitely rearrangeable cultural space that is similar to the Lego set.

In several ways Adams’ works affirm the notion of “nomadism”; his use of vehicles and of models but especially his reliance on substitution as a logic underlying and informing his mode of construction. The thing about the implements or pieces of equipment that Adams features in his sculptures is their equivalence with one another, their interchangeability. That is, one John Deere tractor is as good as another. The next step is to see that the tractor operator is equally interchangeable, and that the artist is implicated in this order as well. This interchangeability is as much a form of nomadism as the more obvious forms evoked by Adams’ use of the vehicle-home as a theme in his work.

In Modernism we find a uniformity and standardization of spaces; space conceived of as an abstract continuum: quantifiable and infinitely divisible, but above all, homogeneous in such a way that place disappears. American architect Kenneth Frampton has developed a theory of the placeform, a form which he says has a critical resistance based in presentation of a structural poetic as opposed to the re-presentation of a facade. His theory of place argues for a definition of dwellingsitedness which gathers itself only in dividing itself. In differentiating itself, Place makes room for something by creating limits, boundaries that differentiate it from other places. Such places cannot exist within the indifference of Modern or Cartesian space. Frampton argues that to accommodate differences we need, not simply space, but belongingplaces (topos) integral with the social, natural world.

In this conception of space, otherness provides critical relief from self-centeredness through creative encounter with estrangement. Nomadism undermines that possibility by its insistence on non-identity, a move, which without contrasts, cannot provide for the encounter with otherness. By undermining identity in a Nietzschean reversal, authentic relations of difference are simultaneously undermined. Otherness has the potential to function in resistance to the homogenizing of space which proceeds through the expansion of Modernity.

Where Adams’ work promotes the culturally prevalent theme of “nomadism” (interchangeability, the preferred social organization of post-industrial technological culture), we can say, along with Marchand, that it “draws us into a complicity that knows no limits.” If Adams’ work has a critical dimension it is one that rests on the ambiguities of complicity. This might be construed as “resistance,” however the real strengths of this work lie in its ability to unsettle, through mimicry and simulation, the “illusory constructs” organizing culture. When it is not weighed down by the seriousness of indusrial fabrication, there is a whimsical pleasure in the humour of Adams’ ironically “populist” vision.

An important text for museum and cultural studies

An important text for museum and cultural studies, Civilizing Rituals destabilizes binarisms such as art/artifact, ritual observed/ritual enacted, and sacred/secular. Duncan’s theoretical approach is based on notions of liminality and ritual; how the museum serves to temporarily suspend “normal” social behaviour in its effect on the visitor. The result of this suspension is that the viewer, gendered male by modernist art historical discourse and curatorial practice, is propelled towards a form of aesthetic enlightenment similar to spiritual illumination.

Within the liminal space of the art museum, Duncan argues, the (male) viewer, the male benefactor and corporate funding compose a ritualized experience that flows smoothly along the modernist trajectory. Duncan describes this experience and trajectory as characterized by a socially exclusive, economically elitist and, often, sexist conception of reality. Convincingly argued, Duncan’s feminist analysis of MOMA completes several brief but rigorous social histories of major Western museums such as the Louvre and the British National Gallery. In the final chapter, she describes how MOMA positions images of women as destructive or seductive Other to the otherwise cerebral aesthetics of modernism.

Duncan’s underlying theme is that the literal and conceptual construction of such museums maintains an eighteenth-century notion of aesthetic experience. As it has been described and desired in various philosophical and museological texts, aesthetic experience equates with revelation. Sensitive to the historical circumstances which generated the art institutions discussed, Duncan presents the gallery as a flexible tool that can have political and nationalistic purposes as well as fulfilling individuals’ need to exonerate themselves through public commemoration. Duncan balances her reading of the museum as economically motivated and culturally specific sign with a theoretically promising investigation of ritual and liminality in the gallery context. C. H.

C’est a l’occasion d’une exposition

C’est a l’occasion d’une exposition consacree a Hans Haacke, a l’ete 1995 a Barcelone, que parut ce magnifique catalogue. D’abondants documents photographiques commentes par Haacke lui-meme informent le lecteur sur les tenants et aboutissants de ses nombreuses creations. On redecouvre l’oeuvre des annees soixante avec ses structures complexes et ses systemes en temps reel. Et celle des annees soixante-dix ou Haacke entreprit de mettre en lumiere des problemes a saveur socio-politique. On revit l’affaire Shapolsky qui, en 1971, provoqua l’annulation de son exposition solo au Guggenheim. Deja Haacke, l’artiste qui entrevoyait l’art comme un mode de communication, fut <<excommunie>> du marche de l’art americain.

L’article de Walter Grasskamp retrace de Documenta en Documenta, les principaux episodes qui ont marque la carriere de l’artiste ainsi que les differentes controverses que son travail a provoquees. Nous y apprenons, par exemple, que Haacke fut engage comme photographe a la Documenta 2 (1959). Cette experience fut decisive pour lui: le marche de l’art lui apparut comme un monde regroupant des travailleurs de tous les milieux. Cette vision des choses lui fit perdre, d’entree de jeu, toute illusion quant a l’existence d’un art autonome. Deja, dans les photographies produites a cette occasion, apparaissent deux traits recurrents de son oeuvre: scepticisme et polemique.

Benjamin Buchloh, pour sa part, explore le phenomene Haacke en fonction de son implication historique et theorique. Ce qui le preoccupe surtout, ce sont les interets ideologiques qui continuent a vouloir definir l’esthetique comme la forme singuliere d’une experience desinteressee. Il cherche aussi a clarifier les fonctions repressives des concepts de pure visualite qui proscrivent la representation de l’experience historique. Enfin, il examine les effets d’exclusion que provoquent les concepts d’autonomie.

A noter, a la page 176, une interview avec l’artiste menee par Jean Papineau (tiree de Parachute, n[degrees] 56) sur des questions theoriques establissant des correspondances entre la pensee de Brecht et une oeuvre de Haacke, Voici Alcan, presentee a Montreal en 1983.

Mentionnons, pour terminer, que tous les textes sont en anglais et en espagnol. A.-M. G.